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Any employee who abuses the privilege of Auburn City Schools' facilitated access to e-mail or the Internet will be subject to disciplinary action up to and including termination. This is why there are increasing efforts to recycle phosphorus contained in wastewater. It involves the recovery of phosphorus and, normally, the sepn.
Phosphorus can be recovered from wastewater, sewage sludge, as well as from the ash of incinerated sewage sludge, and can be combined with phosphorus removal in most cases. The phosphorus recovery rate from the liq. There are various methods which can be applied for phosphorus recovery. Up to now, there is limited experience in industrial-scale implementation. The costs for recovered phosphate exceed the costs for phosphate from rock phosphate by several times.
For German conditions, the specific addnl. Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes Ambio , 40 , — DOI: Ambio , 40 4 , ISSN: Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts.
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There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities.
This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment.
The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. Phosphorus removal and recovery from municipal wastewaters Elements , 4 , — DOI: Mineralogical Society of America. Phosphorus is a key pollutant in municipal wastewater. To minimize eutrophication, treatment facilities must often reduce phosphorus levels to less than 1 mg L Two main approaches to achieving this are chem.
Phosphorus can be released from cells and converted to calcium phosphate or the mineral struvite.
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While the products have been shown to be excellent fertilizers, the economic drivers for recovery are still not clear. We should expect more from our sewage sludge Environ. American Chemical Society. Sewage sludge and biosolids prodn. The culmination of previous incremental technologies and regulations aimed at solving a current treatment problem, rather than developing the practice for the higher goals of sustainability have resulted in sludge becoming an economic and social liability.
Sludge management practice must shift from treatment of a liability toward recovery of the embedded energy and chem.
This shift will require new research, treatment technologies and infrastructure and must be guided by the application of green engineering principles to ensure economic, social, and environmental sustainability. Anaerobic treatment in decentralised and source-separation-based sanitation concepts Rev. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater should be a core technol. The most efficient system involves sep. A relatively small vol. Clean nutrient prodn. The issue of org.
Anaerobic treatment of total domestic wastewater stream can be applied as well. Treated in this way wastewater can be discharged or used for irrigation or fertilisation. The post-treatment will be usually required and its rate of complexity depends on the anaerobic effluent quality and local requirements for final effluent quality. A variety of technol. Recovery of agricultural nutrients from biorefineries Bioresour. Characterization, recovery opportunities, and valuation of metals in municipal sludges from U.
Wastewater Treatment Plants Nationwide. US sewage sludges were analyzed for 58 regulated and nonregulated elements by ICP-MS and electron microscopy to explore opportunities for removal and recovery. In contrast, most Pt group elements i. Contribution of wastewater treatment plant effluents to nutrient dynamics in aquatic systems Environ. Environmental management , 44 2 , ISSN:. Excessive nutrient loading considering nitrogen and phosphorus is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants WWTPs to United States U.
While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses.
WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater.
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Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water.
However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation. Sustainable Energy , 30 , — DOI: This work focused on detg. A continuous lab. A min. To reach this pH a min. HRT of 0. Struvite pptn. However, for all HRT and air flows studied the ppt. Engineers Environ Prog, Low-cost struvite production using source-separated urine in Nepal Water Res. Elsevier B. This research investigated the possibility of transferring phosphorus from human urine into a concd. The community of Siddhipur in Nepal was chosen as a research site, because there is a strong presence and acceptance of the urine-diverting dry toilets needed to collect urine sep.
Furthermore, because the mainly agricultural country is landlocked and depends on expensive, imported fertilizers, the need for nutrient security is high. Bittern, a waste stream from salt prodn. Given the current fertilizer prices, high vols. Therefore, it is important to optimize the process.
Our calcns. The magnesium dosage can be optimized by estg. An important source of addnl. Further research should be aimed at finding methods and technologies to recover the nutrients from the effluent. Global potential of phosphorus recovery from human urine and feces Chemosphere , 84 , — DOI: This study geospatially quantifies the mass of an essential fertilizer element, P, available from human urine and feces, globally, regionally, and by specific country. The anal. This important material flow is related to the presence of improved sanitation facilities and also considers the global trend of urbanization.
In the available P from urine that is assocd. Results point to the large potential source of human-derived P in developing regions like Africa and Asia that have a large population currently unserved by improved sanitation facilities. These regions have great potential to implement urine diversion and reuse and composting or recovery of biosolids, because innovative technologies can be integrated with improvements in sanitation coverage.
But other regions with extensive sanitation coverage like Europe and North America need to det. Towards effective phosphorus recycling from wastewater: quantity and quality Chemosphere , 91 , — DOI: Muster, T. This exptl. Struvite formation is the most desirable ppt. This study also demonstrates that in specific cases the preliminary pptn.
Utilizing exptl. A new planning and design paradigm to achieve sustainable resource recovery from wastewater Environ. Guest, Jeremy S. Bruce; Daigger, Glen T. Fraught with hazards requiring diligent attention, new wastewater treatment techniques protect public health, improve ecosystem quality, and are a crit. Yet sustainable water systems can only be fully realized if the general public and the water industry begin thinking about wastewater differently.
This article discusses a paradigm shift from wastewater to resource water. Topics covered include: wastewater as a renewable resource water, energy, and material recovery; resource recovery systems [RRS]; barriers to successfully implement RRS ; the pursuit of sustainability in water management environmental and ecol. The element phosphorus has no substitute in sustaining all life and food prodn. Yet today's phosphorus use patterns have resulted in both a global environmental epidemic of eutrophication and led to a situation where the future availability of the world's main sources of phosphorus is uncertain.
This paper examines the important history of human interference with the phosphorus cycle from initial discovery to present, highlighting key interrelated events and consequences of the Industrial Revolution, Sanitation Revolution and Green Revolution. While these events led to profound advances in technol. It is clear a Fourth Revolution' is required to resolve this dilemma and ensure humanity can continue to feed itself into the future while protecting environmental and human health.
Reuse water pollutants Nature , , 29 — 31 DOI: Nature Publishing Group. A polemic is presented. Asimov on Chemistry ; Doubleday , The precarious geopolitics of phosphorus Down to Earth Sci. Phosphorus: global transfers. Phosphorus recovery from wastewater through microbial processes Curr. Waste streams offer a compelling opportunity to recover phosphorus P. For very dil. This review discusses enhanced biol. The P-rich biosolids can be either directly applied to land, or solubilized and phosphorus recovered as a mineral product.
Direct application is effective, but the product is bulky and carries contaminant risks that need to be managed. Phosphorus release can be achieved using either thermochem. We conclude that while EBPR technol. Review: Phosphorus removal and recovery technologies Sci. Total Environ. Elsevier Science B. A review with many refs. A wide range of technologies were identified, including chem. Phosphorus in wastewater represents a significant renewable resource.
Nutrients in urine: Energetic aspects of removal and recovery Water Sci. Considering only the running electricity and fossil energy requirements for the traditional way of wastewater treatment and fertilizer prodn. These nos. Considering only the electricity and fossil energy for the traditional way of wastewater treatment and fertilizer prodn. A more detailed life cycle assessment LCA of the entire urine collection system, including the required materials and the environmental burden, support the energy anal. The LCA compares conventional denitrification in a wastewater treatment plant with collecting urine in households, reducing the vol.
The primary energy consumption for recovery and reuse of urine, including the nutrients N, P and K, is calcd. Environmental and economic life cycle assessment for sewage sludge treatment processes in Japan Waste Manage. Waste management New York, N. Life cycle assessment for sewage sludge treatment was carried out by estimating the environmental and economic impacts of the six alternative scenarios most often used in Japan: dewatering, composting, drying, incineration, incinerated ash melting and dewatered sludge melting, each with or without digestion.
Three end-of-life treatments were also studied: landfilling, agricultural application and building material application. The results demonstrate that sewage sludge digestion can reduce the environmental load and cost through reduced dry matter volume. Equipment production in scenarios except dewatering has an important effect on GWP, whereas the contribution of construction is negligible.
In addition, the results show that the dewatering scenario has the highest impact on land use and cost, the drying scenario has the highest impact on GWP and acidification, and the incinerated ash melting scenario has the highest impact on human toxicity due to re-emissions of heavy metals from incinerated ash in the melting unit process. On the contrary, the dewatering, composting and incineration scenarios generate the lowest impact on human toxicity, land use and acidification, respectively, and the incinerated ash melting scenario has the lowest impact on GWP and cost.
Heavy metals released from atmospheric effluents generated the highest human toxicity impact, with the effect of dioxin emissions being significantly lower. This study proved that the dewatered sludge melting scenario is an environmentally optimal and economically affordable method. The drivers for increasing incineration of sewage sludge and the characteristics of the resulting incinerated sewage sludge ash ISSA are reviewed. It is estd. Although most ISSA is currently landfilled, various options have been investigated that allow recycling and beneficial resource recovery.
These include the use of ISSA as a substitute for clay in sintered bricks, tiles and pavers, and as a raw material for the manuf. ISSA has also been used to form high d. Significant research has investigated the potential use of ISSA in blended cements for use in mortars and concrete, and as a raw material for the prodn. However, all these applications represent a loss of the valuable phosphate content in ISSA, which is typically comparable to that of a low grade phosphate ore.
ISSA has significant potential to be used as a secondary source of phosphate for the prodn. Resource efficient approaches to recycling will increasingly require phosphate recovery from ISSA, with the remaining residual fraction also considered a useful material, and therefore further research is required in this area.
Phosphate rock demand into the next century: Impact on world food supply Nonrenewable Resour. Phosphate and trace metal availability from sewage-sludge incinerator ash J. Using poultry litter biochars as soil amendments Aust. Soil Res.
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Contaminant immobilization and nutrient release by biochar soil amendment: Roles of natural organic matter Chemosphere , 80 , — DOI: Carbonaceous materials such as char and activated carbon have received considerable attention in recent years as soil amendment for both sequestering heavy metal contaminants and releasing essential nutrients like sulfur. Information is currently lacking in how aging impacts the integrity of biochars as soil amendment for both agricultural and environmental remediation purposes.
Major contributors to biochar aging in soils are: sorption of environmental constituents, esp. To investigate the impact of NOM and org. For aging by oxidn. The results suggest that the org. Base treatment of broiler litter-derived char formed at low pyrolysis temp. Portions of total sulfur were released in sol. Chars produced by slow pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization vary in carbon sequestration potential and greenhouse gases emissions Soil Biol. Biochar, biomass that has been deliberately charred to slow its rate of decompn.
Slow pyrolysis temp. Chars made using slow pyrolysis PC and hydrothermal carbonization HTC of the same feedstock material corn, C4 differed in phys. HTC addn. In contrast, PC addn. HTC treatment resulted in increased CH4 emission from all soils but reduced N2O fluxes in the agricultural and spruce forest soils.
Bacterial phosphate metabolism and its application to phosphorus recovery and industrial bioprocesses J. Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Enhanced biol. Phosphorus recovered from EBPR waste sludge can be used as a raw material for the fertilizer industry, if a sound recycling strategy is developed and applied. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on phosphate metab. A simple method for releasing polyP from EBPR waste sludge and recovering phosphorus in a reusable form for the fertilizer industry is presented.
We also describe a recent development of bioprocesses for the expanded use of polyP in the prodn. Why recover phosphorus for recycling, and how? Selper Ltd. The removal of phosphorus from municipal wastewaters prior to their discharge into the receiving waters is practiced widely and a no. In almost all of these, the P is removed from the aq. There are, however, a growing no. The potential for recovery and recycling of P is discussed from both a historical and a modern industrial perspective. An economic and environmental evaluation of the opportunities for substituting phosphorus recovered from wastewater treatment works in existing UK fertiliser markets Environ.
The behaviour of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals during struvite precipitation in urine Water Res. Recovering the nutrients from urine and reusing them for agricultural purposes adds resource saving to the benefits. Phosphate can be recovered in the form of struvite magnesium ammonium phosphate. In this paper, the behavior of pharmaceuticals and heavy metals during the pptn.
When pptg. For heavy metals, initial expts. For all metals considered, the max. Heavy metals in struvite pptd. Phosphate recovery from urine over struvite pptn. Controlled struvite crystallization for removing phosphorus from anaerobic digester side stream Water Res. Crystal Green struvite fertilizer recovered from wastewater. In Baltic 21 Conference; Berlin, Germany, Technico-economic feasibility of P-recovery from municipal wastewaters Environ.
Bioceramics: From concept to clinic J. A review with refs. Calcite-seeded crystallization of calcium phosphate for phosphorus recovery Chemosphere , 63 , — DOI: Song, Yonghui; Weidler, Peter G. For phosphorus recovery from wastewater, the present paper aims at understanding the crystn. Synthetic hard water with 60 mg C l-1 carbonate and 10 mg P l-1 phosphate was prepd.
The soln. The surface of the calcite seeds was obsd. The studies show that both calcites are effective seeds for the crystn. The studies show that the calcite seeds can be used for phosphorus recovery from hard waters. Recent advances in removing phosphorus from wastewater and its future use as fertilizer — Water Res. Large quantities of phosphate present in wastewater is one of the main causes of eutrophication that neg. It is desirable that water treatment facilities remove phosphorus from the wastewater before they are returned to the environment.
Total removal or at least a significant redn. This comprehensive review summarizes the current status in phosphorus-removal technologies from the most common approaches, like metal pptn. As chem. This review includes the options of struvite ammonium magnesium phosphate and hydroxyapatite formation and other feasible options using, the now largely regarded contaminant, phosphorus in wastewater, as a raw material for the fertilizer industry.
Besides updating our knowledge, this review critically evaluates the advantage and difficulties behind each treatment and indicates some of the most relevant open questions for future research. Renewable Energy Annual, ; Washington, D. Joseph , MI , Thermal hydrolysis tips from the trenches: U. October ; pp 28 — Releasing phosphorus from calcium for struvite fertilizer production from anaerobically digested dairy effluent Water Environ.
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It was found recently that the majority of phosphorus in anaerobically digested dairy effluent is tied up in a fine suspended calcium-phosphate solid, thus becoming unavailable for struvite formation. Acidification and use of a chelating agent were investigated for converting the calcium-assocd. The results demonstrated that the phosphorus in the effluent was released into the soln. In addn. Further, the freed phosphorus ion pptd.
Furthermore, the phase structure of the solid ppt. These results provide methods for altering the forms of phosphorus for the design and application of phosphorus-removal technologies for dairy wastewater management. Low pH anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge for enhanced phosphorous release Water Res. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge WAS at low pH to enhance phosphorous soly. Batch biochem. Net energy production associated with pathogen inactivation during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge Water Res.
The potential for anaerobic digester energy prodn. Mesophilic, thermophilic, temp. Energy input requirements and net energy prodn. First-order inactivation rate coeffs. Inactivation rates increase dramatically at temps. Modeling full-scale performance using retention times based on U. EPA time and temp. For temps. Due to shorter residence times in thermophilic reactors, the net energy prodn.
Energy consumption is not a significant barrier against improving the pathogen quality of biosolids. Phosphorus recovery from microbial biofuel residual using microwave peroxide digestion and anion exchange Water Res. Sustainable prodn. This research tracks the fate of P through biofuel prodn.
PCC Our results show that Synechocystis contained 1. After crude lipids were extd. We est. Advanced oxidn. We then recovered the orthophosphate from the digestion matrix using two different types of anion exchange resins. This recovered P subsequently supported growth of Synechocystis. Phosphorus recovery from urban wastewater treatment plant sludge liquor by ion exchange Sep. In this study P recovery from sludge liquor by ion exchange process was studied. The efficiency of a com. When P recovery from sludge liquor was studied, exptl.
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The satn. When the reactor was operated with sludge liquor and the new resin, the satn. According to the results achieved and the increasing cost of P prodn. Phosphorus recovery from urine and anaerobic digester filtrate: comparison of adsorption—precipitation with direct precipitation Environ.
Water Res. Royal Society of Chemistry. Hybrid anion exchange resin contg. The recovery of PO4 using the two-step adsorption-pptn. Following the satn. The spent regenerants were more concd. Direct pptn. Sustainable Energy , 35 , DOI: Phosphorus P driven eutrophication remains a problem in waterways worldwide. High P levels can significantly alter ecosystems, changing species compn. Most current P treatment technologies cannot adequately remove recalcitrant forms of P from the water column.
In turn, SRP can be removed using available P treatment technologies. Results showed that the photodegrdn. However, the complex chem. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people Science , , — DOI: Godfray, H. Charles J. Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addn. The effects of climate change are a further threat. But the world can produce more food and can ensure that it is used more efficiently and equitably.
A multifaceted and linked global strategy is needed to ensure sustainable and equitable food security, different components of which are explored here. Energy and nutrient recovery from sewage sludge via pyrolysis Water Sci. By contrast, thermal processes such as pyrolysis have typically been used only for energy recovery. One such technol. No attempt was however made to recover and reuse sludge nutrients. There are many potential benefits of using pyrolysis for both energy and nutrient recovery. Firstly, unlike digestion, the principal energy product is oil, which can readily be stored and used when required, ensuring that energy recovery is maximized.
Secondly is that the sludge nutrients are recovered in the pyrolysis char. Results from this study showed that the phosphorus in the char is plant available although the nitrogen was insol. Based on these results it appears that there is potential to use pyrolysis as an effective means to recover and reuse both the energy and the very valuable phosphorus present in sewage sludges.
Formation of NOx precursors during the pyrolysis of coal and biomass. Part V. Pyrolysis of a sewage sludge Fuel , 81 , — DOI: Pyrolysis of a sewage sludge. Elsevier Science Ltd. The thermal cracking of volatiles is the main route of HCN formation. NH3 was also an important NOx precursor formed during the pyrolysis of the sewage sludge. There are at least two distinctive stages of NH3 formation during the pyrolysis of the sewage sludge at a fast heating rate.
The formation of NH3 at temps. The reactions of volatiles in the gas phase make negligible contributions to the obsd. NH3 yield. Reactive nitrogen and the world: years of change Ambio , 31 , 64 — 71 DOI: Ambio , 31 2 , ISSN: This paper examines the impact of food and energy production on the global N cycle by contrasting N flows in the lateth century with those of the lateth century.
We have a good understanding of the amounts of reactive N created by humans, and the primary points of loss to the environment. However, we have a poor understanding of nitrogen's rate of accumulation in environmental reservoirs, which is problematic because of the cascading effects of accumulated N in the environment. The substantial regional variability in reactive nitrogen creation, its degree of distribution, and the likelihood of increased rates of reactive-N formation especially in Asia in the future creates a situation that calls for the development of a Total Reactive Nitrogen Approach that will optimize food and energy production and protect environmental systems.
Optimization-based methodology for the development of wastewater facilities for energy and nutrient recovery Chemosphere , , — DOI: In Comprehensive water quality and purification ; Ahuja, S. Platforms for energy and nutrient recovery from domestic wastewater: A review Chemosphere , , 2 — 11 DOI: NH4 2SO4 recovery from liquid side streams Environ. Two methods of recovering nitrogen from liq. At first, just the stripping plant was put into operation and optimized without any pre-treatment of the supernatant.
Next, the CO2-stripper column was activated and optimized by gas measurements to minimize free ammonia losses, heat losses, and energy consumption. Key operational aspects of the plant were evaluated. Finally, up to 1. The second ammonia removal method using hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes was tested in two small pilot systems by different manufacturers in and at WWTP Neugut.
In this technol. The small pore size and the hydrophobic nature of the membrane prevent the liq. Practical experience regarding operational parameters like wastewater flow rate, pH, temp. Treatment processes for source-separated urine Water Res. A review concerning the properties and source-sepd.
Topics discussed include: urine compn. Ion exchange-precipitation for nutrient recovery from dilute wastewater Environ. Regulated phosphorus P and nitrogen N discharges and the cost of fertilizer provide economic drivers for nutrient removal and recovery from wastewater. This study used ion exchange IX in dil. This is the first tertiary wastewater treatment study directly comparing P removal using a range of Fe, Cu, and Al-based media followed by clinoptilolite IX columns for N removal and pptn.
Phosphate removal prior to breakthrough was 0. Exchange capacity of clinoptilolite in column mode was 3. Maksuton lataus PC:lle. Katso kaikki PC-tuotteet. Vertaa tuotteita. Maksuton lataus Macillle. Katso kaikki Mac-tuotteet. Maksuton lataus Androidille. Hanki virustorjunta muihin laitteisiin. Siirry uudelle tasolle virustorjunnassa alansa johtavalla tietosuojalla ja tietoturvaohjelmalla, joka on suunniteltu juuri iPhoneasi varten.
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